Christine Kunzmann, Andreas P. Schmidt, Witali Karsten, Holger Möhwald
Kompetenzmanagement im Zeitalter von Industrie 4.0: Ein Prozessmodell für agile Herangehensweisen zur Entwicklung von Erfahrungswissen
In: GfA-Frühjahrstagung 2017, 2017

Abstract Angesichts des demographischen Wandels und der disruptiven Veränderung von vielen Industriebereichen durch die fortschreitende Digitalisierung/Industrie 4.0 sieht sich das Thema Kompetenzmanagement vor neuen Herausforderungen. Es geht nun vor allem um agile Herangehensweisen, die Umbruchssituationen und kreativen, auf Einzelsituationen angepassten Einzellösungen gewachsen sind. Der Beitrag stellt ein Kompetenzmanagementprozessmodell und dessen Anwendung auf konkrete Unternehmensbeispiele vor, das auf die wechselseitige Abhängigkeit von unterschiedlichen Ebenen (operativ, strategisch, normativ) und die Verknüpfung mit anderen Unternehmensprozessen abzielt. Dabei ist im besonderen Fokus der Einbau von Lernzyklen für ein Double-Loop-Learning, um die Zielsetzung und eingesetzte Methoden an die sich teilweise schnell verändernden Umgebungsbedingungen zu erreichen und doch auf ein stabiles systematisches Vorgehen setzen zu können.

Christine Kunzmann, Andreas P. Schmidt, Johanna Pirker
Pattern-oriented approaches for design-based research in collaborative research projects: A knowledge maturing perspective
In: Proceedings of EuroPLoP 2016, ACM, 2017

Abstract Design-based research has become increasingly popular in collaborative cross-disciplinary research projects. Based on the experience in several European research projects, this research methodology allows for more agile research approaches. However, it is still a challenge to turn design experiences into a sound body of evidence that can be transferred to future design problems. In this paper, we want to describe an approach to collaborative research projects that extends design-based research with the use of design patterns. We particularly focus on how emergent knowledge can be captured as proto-patterns, how the knowledge develops along the research process, and how such projects can be geared towards pattern outcomes. Towards that end, we present a pattern maturing process describing phases of pattern development that is based on knowledge maturing phase model.


Graham Attwell, Julie Biggs, Jenny Bimrose, Oliver Blunk, Alan Brown, Katarina Ćurković, Philipp Dallmann, Urša Dolinar, Jordi Fernández, Pablo Franzolini, Gerd Gidion, Barbara Gogala, Deirdre Hughes, Nathanael Kautz, Barbara Kieslinger, Steffen Kinkel, Tomaž Klobučar, Tobias Kopp, Christine Kunzmann, Michael Prilla, Angela Rees, Cyril Renard, Teresa Schäfer, Andreas P. Schmidt, Cristina Tresents, Tanja Vlahović, Carmen Wolf
Empowering Change in Public Employment Services: The EmployID Approach

Graham Attwell, Barbara Kieslinger, Oliver Blunk, Andreas Schmidt, Teresa Schäfer, Markus Jelonek, Christine Kunzmann, Michael Prilla, Cyril Renard
Workplace Learning Analytics for Facilitation in European Public Employment Services
In: LAK 2016 Workshop on Learning Analytics for Workplace and Professional Learning, 2016

Abstract The paper is based on early research and practices in developing workplace Learning Analytics for the EU funded EmployID project, focused on identity transformation and continuing professional development in Public Employment Services (PES) in Europe. Workplace learning is mostly informal with little agreement of proxies for learning, driven by demands of work tasks or intrinsic interests of the learner, by self-directed exploration and social exchange that is tightly connected to processes and the places of work. Rather than focusing on formal learning, LA in PES needs to be based on individual and collective social practices and informal learning and facilitation processes rather than formal education. Furthermore, there are considerable concerns and restraints over the use of data in PES including data privacy and issues including power relations and hierarchies. Following a consultation process about what innovations PES would like to pilot and what best meets their needs, PES defined priorities for competence advancement around the ‘resourceful learner’, self-reflection and self-efficacy as core competences for their professional identity transformation. The paper describes an approach based on Social Learning Analytics linked to the activities of the EmployID project in developing social learning including advanced coaching, reflection, networking and learning support services. SLA focuses on how learners build knowledge together in their cultural and social settings. In the context of online social learning, it takes into account both formal and informal educational environments, including networks and communities. The final section of the paper reports on work in progress to build a series of tools to embed SLA within communities and practices in PES organisations.


Teresa Holocher-Ertl, Christine Kunzmann, Lars Müller, Verónica Rivera Pelayo, Andreas P. Schmidt, Carmen Wolf
Motivational and Affective Aspects in Technology Enhanced Learning (MATEL). Workshop-Proceedings of MATEL Workshop 2013-2014.
KIT Scientific Working Paper vol. 26, KIT, 2015

Steffen Kinkel, Ralph Lichtner, Brita Schemann, Andreas P. Schmidt, Sebastian Behrendt, Michael Koch, Alexander Richter
Kompetenzvernetzung für Wertschöpfungschampions
In: Mensch & Computer 2015 Workshopband, De Gruyter Oldenbourg, 2015

Christine Kunzmann, Andreas P. Schmidt, Carmen Wolf
Facilitating maturing of socio-technical patterns through social learning approaches
In: Proceedings of I-KNOW 2015, ACM, 2015

Abstract Pattern-based approaches are becoming increasingly popular to capture design experiences for a wider audience. This rises to particular importance in participatory processes, such as user-driven design approaches. However, the creation process of such patterns is challenging, especially when it comes to motivational, affective and other soft factors. In this paper, we view the pattern development as a knowledge maturing process, i.e., a process of collective knowledge development. We describe the pattern development process, identify barriers in this process, and explain how various social learning approaches, such as peer coaching, social learning programmes (i.e., online courses with a collaborative focus), and reflective instruments in agile processes contribute to the key issue of decontextualizing and recontextualizing experiences in a continuous way.


Andreas Schmidt, Christine Kunzmann
Designing for knowledge maturing: from knowledge-driven software to supporting the facilitation of knowledge development
In: International Conference on Knowledge Management (I-KNOW 2014), ACM, 2014

Abstract Software engineering has been transformed in recent years by understanding the interaction with customers and the target context as an ongoing learning process. Responsiveness to change and user-centered design have been the consequences. In a similar way, knowledge and ontology engineering are undergoing fundamental changes to acknowledge the fact that they are part of a collective knowledge maturing process. We explore three examples: social media based competence management in career guidance, ontology-centered reflection in multi-professional environments in palliative care, and aligning individual mindlines in pratice networks of General Practitioners. Based on these, we extract five types of designing for knowledge maturing and associated technical implementations. This shows that future technology support should especially target facilitation of self-organized, but tool-mediated knowledge development processes, where, e.g., workplace learning analytics can play a prominent role.

Martin Bachl, David Zaki, Andreas Schmidt, Christine Kunzmann
Living Documents as a Collaboration and Knowledge Maturing Platform
In: International Conference on Knowledge Management (I-KNOW 2014), ACM, 2014

Abstract Work-based learning often suffers from lack of opportunities and space for learning activities as part of everyday work processes. One possibility is the active involvement into collective sense-making processes, e.g., how to translate new or updated clinical guidelines into changes of processes and treatment at a concrete practice. This active involvement requires sharing of opinions, ideas, and other “immature” pieces of information/knowledge. However, a major obstacle lies in individuals’ reluctance to share and use immature knowledge if they experience uncertainty about the maturity. Living Documents tries to address this issue. It is a web-based system that allows for collaboration and knowledge development based on the metaphor of a living document. Such living documents combines stable and more mature parts with emergent comments and opinions, which are made first class citizens. Document, sub-documents, and comments can be associated with knowledge maturing indicators. In this respect, the approach to support learning has been based on the knowledge maturing model. The system promotes knowledge maturing by providing a contextual space for conversations that can be linked to more mature knowledge.

Jenny Bimrose, Alan Brown, Teresa Holocher-Ertl, Barbara Kieslinger, Christine Kunzmann, Michael Prilla, Andreas Schmidt, Carmen Wolf
Introducing learning innovation in public employment services. What role can facilitation play?
In: Proceedings of International Conference on E-Learning at the Workplace (ICELW) 2014, New York City, USA, June 11-13, 2014, 2014

Abstract Public Employment Services (PES) in Europe are authorities that match supply and demand on the labor market. Rising unemployment in times of crisis and demographic change are amongst others main challenges that PES practitioners, as direct interface between jobseekers and employers, have to deal with. They have to support career adaptability of their clients as well as to enhance and transform their own individual and collective professional identity to successfully cope with today’s challenges of the labor market. The research project EmployID is exploring how to facilitate the learning process of PES practitioners in their professional identity development. The aim of the project is to empower individual PES practitioners, their community and organizations, to engage in transformative practices, using a holistic tool suite combining e-coaching, reflection, MOOCs, networking, analytical and learning support tools. Initial contextual exploration has started to reveal the complexity of challenges when introducing learning innovation in these public organizations.

Tobias Ley, John Cook, Sebastian Dennerlein, Milos Kravcik, Christine Kunzmann, Kai Pata, Jukka Purma, John Sandars, Patricia Santos, Andreas Schmidt, Mohammad Al-Smadi, Christoph Trattner
Scaling informal learning at the workplace: A model and four designs from a large-scale design-based research effort
British Journal of Educational Technology, 2014

Abstract Workplace learning happens in the process and context of work, is multi-episodic, often informal, problem based and takes place on a just-in-time basis. While this is a very effective means of delivery, it also does not scale very well beyond the immediate context. We review three types of technologies that have been suggested to scale learning and three connected theoretical discourses around learning and its support. Based on these three strands and an in-depth contextual inquiry into two workplace learning domains, health care and building and construction, four design-based research projects were conducted that have given rise to designs for scaling informal learning with technology. The insights gained from the design and contextual inquiry contributed to a model that provides an integrative view on three informal learning processes at work and how they can be supported with technology: (1) task performance, reflection and sensemaking; (2) help seeking, guidance and support; and (3) emergence and maturing of collective knowledge. The model fosters our understanding of how informal learning can be scaled and how an orchestrated set of technologies can support this process.

Jenny Bimrose, Alan Brown, Teresa Holocher-Ertl, Barbara Kieslinger, Christine Kunzmann, Michael Prilla, Andreas P. Schmidt, Carmen Wolf
The Role of Facilitation in Technology-Enhanced Learning for Public Employment Services
International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning (iJAC), vol. 7, no. 3, 2014, pp. 56-65

Abstract Public Employment Services (PES) in Europe are authorities that attempt to match supply and demand on the labor market. Rising unemployment in times of crisis and demographic change are among the main challenges with which PES practitioners, as a direct interface between jobseekers and employers, have to deal. They have to support career adaptability of their clients, as well as to enhance and transform their own individual and collective professional identities, in order to cope successfully with the challenges of a changing labor market. As part of the research project EmployID, we are exploring how to facilitate the learning process of PES practitioners in their professional identity development. The aim of the project is to empower individual PES practitioners, their community, and organizations, to engage in transformative practices, using a holistic tool suite combining e-coaching, reflection, MOOCs, networking, analytical, and learning support tools. The key to successful professional identity transformation is continuous learning. Individuals may take on the role of facilitators for the learning of others as well as being facilitated by peers, technology and environment.


Christine Kunzmann, Andreas Schmidt
Barrieren in der Wissensentwicklung und -weitergabe. Analyseinstrumente und Strategien zur Überwindung
In: Laske, Stephan and Orthey, Astrid and Schmid, Michael J. (eds.): PersonalEntwickeln, Luchterhand, 2013, pp. 5.91/1-18

Abstract In diesem Beitrag erfahren Sie, warum die Berücksichtigung motivationaler, sozialer und kultureller Faktoren für die Wissensentwicklung von entscheidender Bedeutung ist, welche sich daraus ergebenden Barrieren von besonderer Bedeutung sind, wie sich diese Faktoren systematisch analysieren lassen, und wie sie sich durch geeignete Maßnahmen überwinden lassen.

Teresa Holocher-Ertl, Christine Kunzmann, Lars Müller, Verónica Rivera Pelayo, Andreas Schmidt
Motivational & Affective Aspects in Technology Enhanced Learning: Topics, Results, and Research Route
In: ECTEL 2013, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, 2013

Abstract Motivational and affective aspects have long been neglected in research and development of technology enhanced learning (TEL) solutions, but it is now increasingly recognized that they are key to acceptance and sustainable success. However, the consideration of these aspects still suffers from fragmented research activities that are in between established disciplines. We summarize the results from three editions of the EC-TEL workshop series MATEL, which has established a forum for interdisciplinary conversations and joint re-search activities. This includes an overview and systematization of current re-search and its findings as well as prioritized research challenges. The paper concludes with a research agenda that advances the inclusion of motivational and affective aspects into TEL from art to an engineering approach.

Andreas Kaschig, Ronald Maier, Alexander Sandow, Mariangela Lazoi, Andreas Schmidt, Sally-Anne Barnes, Jenny Bimrose, Alan Brown, Claire Bradley, Christine Kunzmann, Athanasios Mazarakis
Organisational Learning from the Perspective of Knowledge Maturing Activities
IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, vol. 6, no. 2, 2013, pp. 158-176

Abstract The level of similarity of knowledge work across occupations and industries allows for the design of supportive information and communication technology (ICT) that can be widely used. In a previous ethnographically-informed study, we identified activities that can be supported to increase knowledge maturing, conceptualized as goal-oriented learning on a collective level. The aim of this paper is to investigate the current state of support and success of these knowledge maturing activities and to contrast them with their perceived importance, in order to identify those which have the highest potential for being supported by ICT. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through telephone interviews with representatives from 126 organizations throughout Europe in a sample stratified according to size, sector and knowledge-intensity. The activities that appear to be most promising are ‘reflecting on and refining work practices and processes’, ‘finding people with particular knowledge or expertise’, as well as ‘assessing, verifying and rating information’. Rich empirical material about how these activities are performed and also the issues that emerged and need to be managed were collected. Three clusters of organizations were identified: best performing organizations, people- and awareness-oriented organizations and hesitant formalists. It was found that a balanced knowledge strategy that leaned towards personalization outperformed a codification strategy.

Tobias Ley, John Cook, Sebastian Dennerlein, Milos Kravcik, Christine Kunzmann, Mart Laanpere, Kai Pata, Jukka Purma, John Sandars, Patricia Santos, Andreas Schmidt
Scaling Informal Learning: An Integrative Systems View on Scaffolding at the Workplace
In: ECTEL 2013, Paphos, Cyprus, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, 2013

Abstract While several technological advances have been suggested to scale learning at the workplace, none has been successful to scale informal learning. We review three theoretical discourses and suggest an integrated systems model of scaffolding informal workplace learning that has been created to tackle this challenge. We derive research questions that emerge from this model and illustrate these with an in-depth analysis of two workplace learning domains.

Andreas Schmidt, Christine Kunzman, Simone Braun, Teresa Holocher-Ertl, Ulrike Cress, Athanasios Mazarakis, Lars Müller, Verónica Rivera Pelayo
International Workshops on Motivational and Affective Aspects in Technology Enhanced Learning 2011 and 2012 (MATEL)

Christine Kunzmann, Andreas Schmidt, Graham Attwell, Elizabeth Chan, Marius Heinemann-Grüder, Jenny Hughes, Wenlin Lan, Andreas Vratny, Andreas Heberle
REFLECT: Community-Driven Scaffolding for Voice-enabled Reflection on the Go
In: 3rd Workshop on Awareness and Reflection in Technology-Enhanced Learning, 2013

Abstract REFLECT is a mobile app that promotes a regular reflective routine. It is voice-based so that it can be used, e.g., while driving a car or in similar situations. The reflection session is scaffolded through decks of questions that can be configured by the other and shared with others, who in turn can reuse the questions.

Tanja Stiehl, Monika Führer, Gian Domenico Borasio, Christine Kunzmann, Andreas Schmidt, Traugott Roser
What Does “Spiritual Care” Stand for in Pediatric Palliative Care? A Well-grounded Approach: The Web-based Ontology of Spirituality
In: 13th World Congress of the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) Prague, Czech Republic, 30 May – 2 June 2013, 2013, pp. 66

Christine Kunzmann, Traugott Roser, Andreas Schmidt, Tanja Stiehl
SpirOnto: Semantically Enhanced Patient Records for Reflective Learning on Spiritual Care in Palliative Care
In: 3rd Workshop on Awareness and Reflection in Technology-Enhanced Learning, co-located with ECTEL 2013, 2013

Abstract Ontologies as shared understanding of a domain of interest can support reflective processes in spiritual care. Such an ontology has been extracted from an empirical analysis of historic patient records, which has identified a key structure. This ontology is supposed to support the reflective learning process of the palliative care team, which is interdisciplinary. A first prototype for a semantically enhanced patient care documentation system has been developed which embeds links to spiritual care into practice and helps to create awareness among other disciplines about the systematic nature of spiritual care.

Christine Kunzmann, Patric Rieker, Andreas Schmidt
Exploring Motivational Aspects for Technology-Enhanced Informal Learning in the Construction Sector
In: 3rd International Workshop on Motivational & Affective Aspects in Technology Enhanced Learning, co-located with ECTEL 2013, 2013

Birgit R. Krogstie, Andreas Schmidt, Christine Kunzmann, John Krogstie, Simone Mora
Linking Reflective Learning and Knowledge Maturing in Organizations
In: 3rd Workshop on Awareness and Reflection in Technology-Enhanced Learning, co-located with ECTEL 2013, 2013

Abstract Reflection is a key activity for learning in organizations. While technology support for reflection on the individual and collaborative level is promising, it remains challenging to embed these learning activities into the organization. To better understand and support reflection in the workplace, it is important to see the mutual dependencies between reflective learning activities and knowledge maturing. In this paper, we seek to bridge the gap by presenting a conceptual model linking reflection and knowledge maturing. Based on the model we put forward three propositions: In reflective learning, expertise moderates knowledge maturing, discrepancies be-tween knowledge elements trigger reflection, and the maturity of knowledge used in reflection influences the reflection process. We use findings from empirical studies in two care homes to support the propositions. We address implications for the design of technology enhanced reflection support by discussing a prototype reflection tool for care homes.


Simone Braun, Christine Kunzmann, Andreas Schmidt
Semantic People Tagging & Ontology Maturing: An Enterprise Social Media Approach to Competence Management
International Journal on Knowledge and Learning (IJKL), vol. 8, no. 1/2, 2012, pp. 86-111

Abstract Semantic People Tagging is an Enterprise 2.0-style approach to making expertise and individual capabilities transparent. By combining it with a collaborative ontology editor and thus the possibility to construct a shared vocabulary and understanding, it can be a supplement for cumbersome competence management, or expert finder solutions, which lack acceptance among employees, and suffer from outdated data. It gives human resources a timely overview of available and required competencies based on peer reviews and actual usage. However, it also needs to be tailored to the cultural characteristics of a specific company. Therefore, we have developed a design framework for semantic people tagging. We want to present the general approach based on the ontology maturing concept of gradual formalization and its implementation based on a social semantic bookmarking system. Focus group interviews with HR experts have further have yielded insights into the wider context and validated the concept. The system has been introduced and evaluated at a company for career advising, and is being rolled out to additional contexts.

Andreas Schmidt, Christine Kunzmann, Andreas Kaschig, Alexander Sandow, Ronald Maier
Knowledge Maturing: Creating Learning Rich Workplaces for Agile Organizations

Abstract The agility of organizations has become the critical success factor for competitiveness in a world characterized by an accelerating rate of change. Agility requires that companies and their employees together and mutually dependently learn and develop their competencies efficiently in order to improve productivity of knowledge work. As a reaction to failures of organisation-driven approaches to technology-enhanced learning and the success of community-driven approaches in the spirit of Web 2.0, we have recently seen a paradigm shift in technology support for learning towards more participatory approaches in which learners are seen as active contributors. Within enterprises, this new perspective brings together traditionally separated disciplines like e-learning, knowledge management, and human resources development, but also requires a fundamental change of the culture of the respective enterprise towards an enterprise 2.0, which is characterized by enhanced collaboration and a cultural of employee participation. These developments are at the heart of how individuals and companies value and deal with knowledge. To make sense it and to productively shape the change process, we need a new conceptual framework that is both well-grounded on extensive research and pratically relevant and proven through application in numerous projects. The Knowledge Maturing perspective is a novel approach that helps understanding the fundamental change, the barriers and disruptions in knowledge development, but also shows opportunities and gives guidance to make use of them.


Lars Müller, Veronica Rivera Pelayo, Christine Kunzmann, Andreas Schmidt
From Stress Awareness to Coping Strategies of Medical Staff: Supporting Reflection on Physiological Data
In: Salah, Albert Ali and Lepri, Bruno (eds.): Second International Workshop on Human Behavior Understanding (HBU 2011), Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 7065, Springer, 2011, pp. 93-103

Abstract Nurses and physicians on a stroke unit constantly face pressure and emotional stress. Physiological sensors can create awareness of one’s own stress and persuade medical staff to reflect on their own behavior and coping strategies. In this study, eight nurses and physicians of a stroke unit were equipped with a wearable ECG and acceleration sensor during their everyday work in order to (a) make them aware of stress and (b) support the re-calling of experiences to identify stressors. In an interview one week later, the participants were asked to recollect stress related events through the examination of the sensor data. Although high activity levels diminished the expressiveness of the data, physicians and nurses could recall stressful events and were interested in their physiological signals. However, existing coping strategies turned out as barriers to the adoption of new tools. Future persuasive applications should focus on integration with existing coping strategies to scaffold the reflection process.

Tanja Stiehl, Monika Führer, Traugott Roser, Christine Kunzmann, Andreas Schmidt
Describing spiritual care within pediatric palliative care. An ontology-based method for qualitative research
In: 12th Congress of the European Association for Palliative Care 2011, Portugal, 2011

Barbara Kump, Kristin Knipfer, Viktoria Pammer, Andreas Schmidt, Ronald Maier, Christine Kunzmann, Ulrike Cress, Stefanie N. Lindstaedt
The Role of Reflection in Maturing Organizational Know-how
In: 1st European Workshop on Awareness and Reflection in Learning Networks (ARNets11), in conjunction with EC-TEL 2011, Palermo (Italy), September 21, 2011, 2011

Abstract The Knowledge Maturing Phase Model has been presented as a model aligning knowledge management and organizational learning. The core argument underlying the present paper is that maturing organizational know-how requires individual and collaborative reflection at work. We present an explorative interview study that analyzes reflection at the workplace in four organizations in different European countries. Our qualitative findings suggest that reflection is not equally self-evident in different settings. A deeper analysis of the findings leads to the hypothesis that different levels of maturity of processes come along with different expectations towards the workers with regard to compliance and flexibility, and to different ways of how learning at work takes place. Furthermore, reflection in situations where the processes are in early maturing phases seems to lead to consolidation of best practice, while reflection in situations where processes are highly standardized may lead to a modification of these standard processes. Therefore, in order to support the maturing of organizational know-how by providing reflection support, one should take into account the degree of standardisation of the processes in the target group.

Athanasios Mazarakis, Christine Kunzmann, Andreas Schmidt, Simone Braun
Culture Awareness for Supporting Knowledge Maturing in Organizations
In: Motivation und kulturelle Barrieren bei der Wissensteilung im Enterprise 2.0, Workshop auf der Mensch & Computer 2011, 2011

Abstract The success and sustainability of informal learning support at the workplace largely depends on motivational, social, and cultural aspects of the involved individuals, teams, and organizations. In this paper, we present our empirical findings from a large-scale interview-based study on those aspects with respect to knowledge development in companies. We draw some conclusions that influence the development of future culturally aware systems for the enterprise and organizations.

John Cook, Andreas Schmidt, Christine Kunzmann, Simone Braun
The challenge of integrating motivational and affective aspects into the design of networks of practice
In: 2nd International Workshop on Motivational and Affective Aspects in Technology Enhanced Learning (MATEL 11), ECTEL 2011, Palermo, Italy, 2011

Abstract In this position paper, we (i) set out the background, problems and questions involved in moving towards a design methodology for incorporating motivational and affective factors in networks of practice, (ii) define networks of practice, highlighting that motivational and affective factors are intertwined with a range of other complex issues, (iii) examine some of these aforementioned problems using a specific example from the MATURE IP ( called people tagging, and use this case (iv) to delineate the challenge of integrating motivational aspects into the design of networks of practice.

Christine Kunzmann, Andreas Schmidt
Ethnographically Informed Studies as a Methodology for Motivation Aware Design Processes
In: 2nd International Workshop on Motivational and Affective Aspects in Technology-Enhanced Learning, ECTEL 2011, Palermo, Italy, 2011

Abstract While motivational aspects have been recognized as important factors for IT support for learning, it has been difficult to integrate them into requirements engineering processes. We propose ethnographically informed studies as an effective means that has been successfully applied in two research projects as part of their design processes and discuss the remaining challenges.


Andreas Kaschig, Ronald Maier, Alexander Sandow, Mariangela Lazoi, Sally-Anne Barnes, Jenny Bimrose, Claire Bradley, Alan Brown, Christine Kunzmann, Athanasios Mazarakis, Andreas Schmidt
Knowledge Maturing Activities and Practices Fostering Organisational Learning: Results of an Empirical Study
In: Sustaining TEL: From Innovation to Learning and Practice 5th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2010, Barcelona, Spain, September 28 - October 1, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 6383, Springer, 2010, pp. 151-166

Abstract Knowledge work is performed in all occupations and across all industries. The level of similarity of knowledge work allows for designing supporting tools that can be widely used. In this paper an activity-based perspective towards knowledge work is taken. Based on findings from a previous ethnographically-informed study, we identified valuable activities to be supported in order to increase knowledge maturing inside companies. The goal of this paper is to contribute to which knowledge maturing activities are deemed important, so that they can be supported by IT services. Quantitative and qualitative data have been collected in 126 organisations of different size, sector and knowledge intensity. Important feedback and issues emerged and need to be managed in order to support success in the knowledge maturing activities that allow improvement of organisational learning through the dissemination and application of the most appropriate knowledge.

Simone Braun, Christine Kunzmann, Andreas Schmidt
People Tagging & Ontology Maturing: Towards Collaborative Competence Management
In: Randall, David and Salembier, Pascal (eds.): From CSCW to Web2.0: European Developments in Collaborative Design Selected Papers from COOP08, Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Springer, 2010

Abstract Competence Management approaches suggest promising instruments for more effective resource allocation, knowledge management, learning support, and human resource development in general. However, especially on the level of individual employees, such approaches have so far not been able to show sustain-able success on a larger scale. Piloting applications like expert finders have often failed in the long run because of incomplete and outdated data, apart from social and organizational barriers. To overcome these problems, we propose a collabora-tive competence management approach. In this approach, we combine Web 2.0-style bottom-up processes with organizational top-down processes. We addressed this problem as a collaborative ontology construction problem of which the con-ceptual foundation is the Ontology Maturing Process Model. In order to realize the Ontology Maturing Process Model for competence management, we have built the AJAX-based semantic social bookmarking application SOBOLEO that offers task-embedded competence ontology development and an easy-to-use interface. Following evolutionary prototyping within the design-based research methodology we conducted two field experiments in parallel with the system development in order to test the approach of people tagging in general and to explore motivational and social aspects in particular.


Christine Kunzmann, Andreas Schmidt, Volker Braun, David Czech, Benjamin Fletschinger, Silke Kohler, Verena Lüber
Integrating Motivational Aspects into the Design of Informal Learning Support in Organizations
In: 9th International Conference on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Technologies, September 2-4, 2009, Graz, Austria, 2009, pp. 259-267

Abstract Motivational aspects in knowledge management have so far largely been considered from the perspective of designing and implementing incentives that influence the extrinsic motivation of employees to participate, contribute, share etc. This is increasingly considered problematic so that this contribution takes a more holistic viewpoint by analyzing and systematizing barriers that have an impact on the motivation to engage in knowledge maturing activities. Based on an ethnographic study and targeted semi-structured interviews, a model is presented that decomposes the motivational aspects. Furthermore, it is presented how motivational aspects can be incorporated into the design of learning support systems.

Sally-Anne Barnes, Jenny Bimrose, Alan Brown, Daniela Feldkamp, Andreas Kaschig, Christine Kunzmann, Ronald Maier, Tobias Nelkner, Alexander Sandow, Stefan Thalmann
Knowledge Maturing at Workplaces of Knowledge Workers: Results of an Ethnographically Informed Study
In: 9th International Conference on Knowledge Management (I-KNOW '09), Graz, Austria, 2009, pp. 51-61

Abstract The concept of knowledge worker has been around for fifty years and many information and communication technologies have been implemented in order to support this type of work. Workplaces have changed substantially, but information is scarce about how actual knowledge workers handle knowledge in their workplaces. This paper presents the results of a joint study of knowledge workers’ workplaces in five organisations representing a diverse sample in terms of size, sector and technology intensity. The results suggest that a number of person types with predominant ways of handling knowledge can be favourably used for designing supportive tools and infrastructures.


Christine Kunzmann, Andreas Schmidt
Kompetenzorientierte Personalentwicklung: Auf dem Wege zum Lernen bei Bedarf
ERP Management, vol. 2007, no. 1, 2007, pp. 38-41

Abstract Personalentwicklung als klassische Unternehmensfunktion hat in den letzten Jahren zunehmend ein Image-Problem bekommen. Im besten Fall wurde sie noch als Verwaltungs- und Organisationsabteilung für Mitarbeiterschulungen verstanden, im schlimmeren Fall als menschenfreundlicher Luxus begriffen, den man bei der nächsten Krise auf ein Minimum zurückfährt. Zudem sind andere Bereiche wie Wissensmanagement und Kompetenzmanagement entstanden, die sich ebenfalls mit dem individuellen und organisationalen Lernen und den Kerndomänen der Personalentwicklung beschäftigen, ohne dass sie unter deren Zuständigkeit fallen.

Andreas Schmidt, Christine Kunzmann
Sustainable Competency-Oriented Human Resource Development with Ontology-Based Competency Catalogs
In: Cunningham, Miriam and Cunningham, Paul (eds.): Expanding the Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case Studies. Proceedings of E-Challenges 2007, IOS Press, 2007

Abstract Competency-oriented approaches are gaining ground in human resource development. Key technology to cope with the complexity of fine-grained approaches are ontologies. By having a formal semantics, many competency-related task can be partially automated on a technical level. In this paper, we want to show that ontology-based approaches also foster the sustainability of such approaches on an organizational level by providing connections between the operational and strategic level. We present a reference ontology and a reference process model which have been applied in a hospital case study.


Christine Kunzmann, Andreas Schmidt, Friedbert Mager
Kompetenzen managen: Wie man Fort- und Weiterbildungen in der Krankenpflege gezielt und zukunftsorientiert plant.
krankenhaus umschau, vol. 75, no. 8, 2006, pp. 712-714

Andreas Schmidt, Christine Kunzmann
Towards a Human Resource Development Ontology for Combining Competence Management and Technology-Enhanced Workplace Learning
In: Meersman, Robert and Tahiri, Zahir and Herero, Pilar (eds.): On The Move to Meaningful Internet Systems 2006: OTM 2006 Workshops. Part I. 1st Workshop on Ontology Content and Evaluation in Enterprise (OntoContent 2006), Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 4278, Springer, 2006, pp. 1078--1087

Abstract Competencies as abstractions of work-relevant human behaviour have emerged as a promising concept for making human skills, knowledge and abilities manageable and addressable. On the organizational level, competence management uses competencies for integrating the goal-oriented shaping of human assets into management practice. On the operational and technical level, technologyenhanced workplace learning uses competencies for fostering learning activities of individual employees. It should be obvious that these two perspectives belong together, but in practice, a common conceptualization of the domain is needed. In this paper, we want to present such a reference ontology that builds on existing approaches and experiences from two case studies.

Christine Kunzmann, Andreas Schmidt
Ontology-based Competence Management for Healthcare Training Planning - A Case Study
In: 6th International Conference on Knowledge Management (I-KNOW 06), Graz, 2006

Abstract With the increased pressure towards economic efficiency, hospitals and other healthcare institutions need to reengineer their internal organization and processes. This challenges human resources development with increased efficiency of training in general. We have developed a competence management concept for training planning at a big German hospital with a special focus on critically analyzing the suitability of state-of-the-art ontology-based approaches for the area of nursery. Experiences from the case study show the general feasibility, but also crucial issues summarized in this paper.

Andreas Schmidt, Christine Kunzmann, Ernst Biesalski
Systematische Personalentwicklung mit ontologiebasierten Kompetenzkatalogen: Konzepte, Erfahrungen, Visionen
In: Gronau, Norbert and Fröming, Jane and Schmid, Simone (eds.): Fachtagung Kompetenzmanagement - Schulung, Staffing und Anreizsysteme, Potsdam, 5.10.2006, GITO, 2006

Abstract Ontologiebasierten Kompetenzkatalogen kommt im Rahmen des Kompetenzmanagements eine Schlüsselrolle zu. Auf methodischer Ebene dienen sie dazu, Personalentwicklungsstrategien konstruktiver zu diskutieren sowie strategische und operative Ebene besser miteinander zu vernetzen. Auf technologischer Ebene kann derselbe Katalog bzw. eine unmittelbare Verfeinerung/Erweiterung zur (Teil-)Au-tomatisierung von Personalprozessen genutzt werden, um so kompetenzbasierte Personalentwicklung effizienter zu gestalten. Gezeigt wird dies an zwei Beispielen: dem integrierten Ansatz der DaimlerChrysler AG, Werk Wörth und dem Ansatz zur Bildungsbedarfsplanung und -steuerung am Städtischen Klinikum Karlsruhe. Abschließend soll ein Ausblick gegeben werden, wie Kompetenzkataloge auch zur Unterstützung des Lernens bei Bedarf (z.B. durch Generierung von individuellen Bildungsempfehlungen) am Arbeitsplatz genutzt werden können (am Beispiel des Forschungsprojektes Learning in Process).


Christine Kunzmann
Konzeption von Skills-Management-Instrumenten für die Bildungsbedarfsermittlung in der Pflege am Städtischen Klinikum Karlsruhe